Introduction

 

These draft Rhode Island Grade Span Expectations (GSEs) for Civics & Government and Historical Perspectives/Rhode Island History have been developed as a means to identify the content knowledge and skills expected of all students (grades K-high school). GSEs are meant to capture the “big ideas” of civics and history that can be taught and assessed, without narrowing the curriculum locally. They are not intended to represent the full curriculum for instruction and assessment locally, nor are they meant to simply replace existing social studies curriculum. The set of GSEs includes concepts and skills intended to be for local assessment purposes only. Generally speaking, Grade Span Expectations – at any grade – represent content knowledge and skills that have been introduced instructionally at least one to two years before students are expected to demonstrate confidence in applying them independently.

 

As you read these Grade Span Expectations, the following ideas are important to understand:

 

  1. Civics & Government and Historical Perspectives/Rhode Island History are the only two social studies strands included in these GSEs. It is expected that local social studies curriculum frameworks would also include other strands, such as culture, geography, and economics.
  2. All of the concepts and skills identified at a given grade span are considered “fair game” for assessment purposes at the local school/district level. GSEs for grades 9-12 are intended to be used in making decisions about proficiency in social studies. Extended Learning GSEs (Ext/high school only) are included as suggested learning that goes beyond proficiency.
  3. Because GSEs identify “assessable” content and skills, the use of conjunctions throughout this document have specific meaning. The use of the conjunction “or” means that a student may be expected to be assessed on all or some of the elements of the GSE at a given time. The use of “and” between elements of a GSE means that the intent is to assess all parts of the GSE together.  Sometimes “or” is used when students have choices about how they will respond (e.g., researching a current OR historical issue OR event).
  4. Each GSE includes several parts.
    1. An overarching Statement of Enduring Knowledge identifies the “big ideas” of the discipline.  Enduring Knowledge is defined as understandings that have enduring value beyond a single lesson, unit of study, or grade level; are at the heart of the discipline (“doing” the subject); uncover abstract, complex, or often misunderstood ideas; and can be used to frame essential questions for learning (e.g., What are the purposes and functions of government?  How does one become a citizen?).
    2. A statement in bold, called the “stem,” is the first part of each GSE. Each “stem” is the same across the grades for a given GSE, and is meant to communicate the main curriculum and instructional focus across the grades for the related big idea. There are often several stems for each big idea.
    3. The non-bold text within a GSE indicates how the GSE is specified at a given grade span. There are often are several indicators for each GSE stem. Don’t forget to read each indicator (a, b, c, etc.) WITH the stem.
    4. Differences between adjacent grades are underlined. (Note: Sometimes nothing is underlined within a GSE. In these situations, differences in adjacent grades assume increasing complexity or perhaps broadening the scope of the content or skills.)
  5. Each RI GSE is coded for the content area, the grade span, the GSE “stem” number, and the specific indicator for that GSE stem. [E.g., “C&G 2—(9-12)-1.a” means C&G 2 (Civics & Government, 2nd Statement of Enduring Knowledge) – 9-12 (grade span 9-12/Proficiency) - 1 (1st GSE “stem”) – a (the first specific indicator for the 1st GSE stem under C&G 2).]

 

Statement of Enduring Knowledge - The “Big Idea”

 
Sample Rhode Island GSE for Civics & Government

 

 

 


C&G 2: The Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches.

Grades 7- 8

Grades 9-12

C&G 2 (7-8) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by…

 

Specific indicator for instruction and assessment at this grade span

 
a. explaining how and why power is divided and shared among the levels of government (federalism)

C&G 2 (9-12) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by…

 

a. analyzing the basic structures of government in the U.S. (e.g., national, state, local; branches of federal government) through researching a current or historical issue or event

Differences between this grade span and the prior grade span are underlined.

 

 

 

 

Ø      The Statement of Enduring Knowledge identifies “the why” – Why is this topic/concept important for me to learn?

Ø      The GSE stem identifies “the what” – What is the focus of the big idea (Statement of Enduring Knowledge) for instruction and assessment?

Ø      The indicators following each stem identify “the how” – How will students demonstrate what they know and can do at each grade span to show understanding?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Draft GSEs: Overview and Table of Contents

Civics & Government Strand

Statements of Enduring Knowledge

Stems for Each Statement of Enduring Knowledge

Students demonstrate an understanding of:

Page

C&G 1: People create and change structures of power, authority, and governance in order to accomplish common goals.

C&G 1 -1: Origins, forms, and purposes of government …

4

C&G 1 -2: Sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed …

5

C&G 2: The Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches.

C&G 2 -1: United States government (local, state, national) …

6

C&G 2 -2: The democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government 

7

C&G 3: In a democratic society, all people have certain rights and responsibilities.

C&G 3 -1: Citizens’ rights and responsibilities …

8

C&G 3 -2: How individuals and groups exercise (or are denied) their rights and responsibilities

9

C&G 4: People engage in political processes in a variety of ways.

C&G 4 -1: Political systems and political processes …

10

C&G 4 -2: Their participation in political processes …

11

C&G 4 -3: Their participation in a civil society…

12

C&G 5: As members of an interconnected world community, the choices we make impact others locally, nationally, and globally.

C&G 5 -1: The many ways Earth’s people are interconnected …

13

C&G 5 -2: The benefits and challenges of an interconnected world …

13

C&G 5 -3: How the choices we make impact and are impacted by an interconnected world…

14

Historical Perspectives/R. I. History Strand

Statements of Enduring Knowledge

Stems for Each Statement of Enduring Knowledge

Students:

Page

HP 1: History is an account of human activities that is interpretive in nature.

HP 1 -1 Act as historians, using a variety of tools (e.g., artifacts and primary/secondary sources)

15

HP 1 -2 Interpret history as a series of connected events with multiple cause-effect relationships

16

HP 2: History is a chronicle of human activities, diverse people, and the societies they form.

HP 2 -1 Connect the past with the present …

17

HP 2 -2 Chronicle events and conditions …

18

HP 2 -3 Show understanding of change over time …

18

HP 3: The study of history helps us understand the present and shape the future.

HP 3 -1 Demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present …

19

HP 3 -2 Make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world)

20

Appendices

 

Page

APPENDIX A: Glossary

Definitions of terms found in the grade span expectations

21

APPENDIX B: Suggested Resources

List of free civics, government, and history (global and Rhode Island) resources

27


Draft GSEs for Civics & Government Strand

 

C&G 1: People create and change structures of power, authority, and governance in order to accomplish common goals.

GSEs for Grades K-2

GSEs for Grades 3-4

GSEs for Grades 5-6

GSEs for Grades 7-8

GSEs for HS Proficiency

GSEs for HS Extended Learning

C&G 1 (K-2) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of origins, forms, and purposes of government by…

C&G 1 (3-4) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of origins, forms, and purposes of government by…

C&G 1 (5-6) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of origins, forms, and purposes of government by…

C&G 1 (7-8) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of origins, forms, and purposes of government by…

C&G 1 (9-12) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of origins, forms, and purposes of government by…

C&G 1 (Ext) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of origins, forms, and purposes of government by…

a. identifying rules and consequences for not following them in different settings (e.g., home, bus, classroom, cafeteria, etc.) and explaining why we need rules and who makes the rules

 

a. making, applying, and enforcing rules (home, school, community)

a. identifying the basic functions of government

 

a. identifying and explaining the origins and basic functions of government

 

a. describing or explaining competing ideas about the purposes and functions of politics and government

a. analyzing competing ideas about the purposes and functions of politics and government

b. evaluating the rules in different settings (e.g., Is this a good rule and why/why not?)

 

b. comparing similarities between a rule and a law

b. listing and defining various forms of government (e.g., dictatorship, democracy, parliamentary, monarchy)

 

b. comparing and contrasting different forms of government (e.g., dictatorship, democracy, theocracy, republic, monarchy)

b. comparing and contrasting different forms of government and their purposes

 

c. exploring examples of services (e.g., post office, police, fire, garbage collection) provided in their own community

 

c. citing examples of services that local and state governments provide for the common good

c. citing examples of when major changes in governments have occurred (e.g., American Revolution, Hammurabi’s Code, Rhode Island Royal Charter/ RI Constitution)

 

c. explaining what happens when political structures do or do not meet the needs of people (e.g., democracy v. anarchy)

c. explaining how a political ideology is reflected in the form and structure of a government (e.g., Democracy – Democratic republic)

 

 

 

 

d. explaining how geography and economics influence the structure of government  

d. distinguishing between the rule of law and the “rule of men” (e.g., Korematsu v. U.S. and Japanese internment during WWII)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C&G 1 (K-2) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed by…

C&G 1 (3-4) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed by…

C&G 1 (5-6) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed by…

C&G 1 (7-8)–2

Students demonstrate an understanding of sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed by…

C&G 1 (9-12) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed, by…

C&G 1 (Ext) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed by…

a. identifying authority figures who make, apply, and enforce rules (e.g.,  family, school, police, firefighters, etc.) and how these people help to meet the needs of the common good

a. identifying authority figures who make, apply, and enforce rules (e.g., family, school, police, firefighters, etc.) and explaining how there are limits to their power (e.g., What are police not allowed to do?)

a. identifying and summarizing the rule of law, using various enduring/ significant documents (e.g., Magna Carta, Preamble of U.S. Constitution, U.N. Rights of the Child, “I Have A Dream” speech)

a. comparing and contrasting the key stages of development of the rule of law, as presented in various enduring/significant documents (e.g., Magna Carta, Preamble of U.S. Constitution, U.N. Rights of the Child, “I Have A Dream” speech)

 

a. identifying how actions of a government affect relationships involving the individual, society and the government (e.g., Homeland Security)

 

b. recognizing and describing the characteristics of leadership and fair decision making, and explaining how they affect others (e.g., line leader, team captain)

 

b. recognizing, describing, and demonstrating the characteristics of leadership and fair decision making, and explaining how they affect others

b. identifying and describing the role of individuals (e.g., Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Thomas Paine) as authority figures/ leaders in the creation of government

b. explaining why the rule of law is necessary to the role of government (e.g., debate/ Robert’s Rules of Order, classroom procedures)

b. explaining how political authority is obtained and legitimized

 

 

 

 

c. defining and identifying the nature of authority and sources of power

c. examining the historical origins of power and how that power has been exercised over time (e.g., divine right, popular sovereignty, social contract, “regime of truth”)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C&G 2: The Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches.

GSEs for Grades K-2

GSEs for Grades 3-4

GSEs for Grades 5-6

GSEs for Grades 7-8

GSEs for HS Proficiency

GSEs for HS Extended Learning

C&G 2 (K-2) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by…

C&G 2 (3-4) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by…

C&G 2 (5-6) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by…

C&G 2 (7-8) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by…

C&G 2 (9-12) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by…

C&G 2 (Ext) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by…

a. identifying elected leadership titles/basic role at different levels of government (e.g., mayor is the leader of a city, governor is the leader of the state, president is the leader of the country)

 

a. identifying the levels (local, state, national) and three branches of government, as defined by the U.S. Constitution, and the roles and purposes of each (e.g., checks and balances)

a. identifying and describing the function of the three branches (i.e., checks and balances, separation of powers)

a. identifying the functions of the three branches of government; and analyzing and describing the interrelationship among the branches (i.e., checks and balances/ cause and effect, separation of powers)

a. evaluating, taking, and defending positions on a current issue regarding the judicial protection of individual or state rights via judicial review

 

 

b. describing the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights and explaining why they are important 

b. identifying how power is divided and shared among the levels of the United States government

b. explaining how and why power is divided and shared among the levels of government (federalism)

b. analyzing the basic structures of government in the U.S. (e.g., national, state, local; branches of federal government) through researching a current or historical issue or event  

 

 

 

 

c. explaining how a bill becomes a law

c. tracing the process of how an idea transforms into a bill and then becomes a law

c. identifying and describing ways in which people gain or fail to gain access to the institutions of the U.S. government (local, state, national) or other political institutions (e.g., access to the U.S. political process)

 

c. analyzing how people gain or fail to gain access to the institutions of the U.S. government (local, state, national) or other political institutions (e.g., access to the U.S. political process)

 

 

 

 

d. critically examining the principles, traditions, and precedents of American constitutional government

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C&G 2 (K-2) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government by…

C&G 2 (3-4) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government by…

C&G 2 (5-6) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government by…

C&G 2 (7-8) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government by…

C&G 2 (9-12) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the US government by…

C&G 2 (Ext) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government by…

a. identifying symbols and national holidays used to depict Americans’ shared democratic  values, principles, and beliefs (e.g., American flag, Pledge of Allegiance, Presidents’ Day, Independence Day)

a. identifying and explaining the meaning of symbols and national holidays used to depict Americans shared democratic values, principles, and beliefs (e.g., colors of the American flag, Pledge of Allegiance, bald eagle, Presidents’ Day, Independence Day)

a. exploring democratic values such as: respect, property, compromise, liberty, self-government, and self-determination

a. explaining how democratic values are reflected in enduring documents, political speeches (discourse), and group actions

 

a. interpreting and analyzing the sources of the U.S. democratic tradition in the Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, and other documents (e.g., RI Constitution, Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments & Resolutions, Supreme Court decisions, Pledge of Allegiance)

 

 

b. using a variety of sources (e.g., trade books, picture books, songs, artwork)  to illustrate the basic values and principles of democracy (e.g.,  Statue of Liberty represents freedom, Independent Man on State House represents individual rights, Grand Old Flag represents national unity, This Land is Your Land represents respect for diversity)

 

b. using a variety of sources (e.g., Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence, trade books, picture books, songs, artwork) to illustrate the basic values and principles of democracy (e.g.,  Statue of Liberty represents freedom, Independent Man on State House represents individual rights, E Pluribus Unum represents national unity, This Land is Your Land represents respect for diversity)

 

b. identifying enduring documents (e.g., Bill of Rights, U.S. Constitution) that reflect the underlying principles of the United States

b. using a variety of sources to identify and defend a position on a democratic principle (e.g., self-government in Declaration of Independence, women’s rights in Seneca Falls Declaration, Habeas Corpus in Laws of 12 Tables, freedom of religion in Washington’s letter to the Touro Synagogue)

b. analyzing the inherent challenges involved in balancing majority rule and minority rights

 

c. identifying individual roles in a group and acting as a productive member of a group

c. exhibiting and explaining what it means to be a responsible member of a group to achieve a common goal (e.g., problem solving, task completion, etc.) and self-monitoring effectiveness in a group

 

c. exhibiting and explaining what it means to be a responsible citizen in the community

c. exhibiting and explaining what it means to be a responsible citizen in the state and nation

c. identifying and giving examples of the discrepancies between democratic ideals and the realities of American social and political life (e.g., equal protection under the law and the reality of  discrimination)

c. analyzing the discrepancies between democratic ideals and the realities of American social and political life (e.g., equal protection under the law and the reality of discrimination)

 

 

 

 

d. discussing different historical understandings/ perspectives of democracy

 

 

 

 

 

 

C&G 3: In a democratic society all people have certain rights and responsibilities.

GSEs for Grades K-2

GSEs for Grades 3-4

GSEs for Grades 5-6

GSEs for Grades 7-8

GSEs for HS Proficiency

GSEs for HS Extended Learning

C&G 3 (K-2) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of citizens’ rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (3-4) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of citizens’ rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (5-6) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of citizens’ rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (7-8) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of citizens’ rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (9-12) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of citizens’ rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (Ext) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of citizens’ rights and responsibilities by…

a. exhibiting respect (e.g., waiting one’s turn, respecting differences, sharing, etc.) for self, parents, teachers, authority figures (police, fire, doctors, community leaders), and others

 

a. exhibiting respect for self, parents, teachers, authority figures (police, fire, doctors, community leaders), and others, and demonstrating an understanding of others’ points of view 

a. defining the concepts: “civic”(adj.), “civics”(n), “civil,” and “citizen

a. defining and applying the concepts: “civic”(adj.), “civics”(n), “civil,”  “citizen,” and “rights

a. comparing and contrasting different perspective on provisions found in the Bill of Rights (e.g., flag burning and the first Amendment)

a. evaluating, taking, and defending positions on provisions found in the Bill of Rights

 

b. using a variety of sources (e.g., primary sources, secondary sources, literature, videos) to provide examples of individuals’ and groups’ rights and responsibilities (e.g., justice, equality, and diversity)

b. identifying citizen’s rights in a democratic society (personal, economic, legal, and civic)

b. evaluating and defending a position on issues involving individual rights (personal, economic, legal, or political rights reflected in the Bill of Rights)

b. comparing and contrasting human rights provided for in various seminal documents or materials (e.g., Declaration of the Rights of Man, Universal Declaration of Rights, International Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other international documents)

 

 

 

 

c. identifying a citizen’s responsibilities in a democratic society (personal, economic, legal, and civic)

c. analyzing and defending a position on an issue involving civic responsibilities (personal, economic, legal or political rights)

 

c. evaluating, taking, and defending positions regarding the personal and civic responsibilities of individuals

 

 

 

d. identifying conflicts between individual rights and the common good (e.g., Eminent domain, airport expansion, Scituate Reservoir, Coastal Access)

d. providing examples that reflect conflicts between individual rights and the common good, within the context of civic responsibility

 

d. analyzing the scope and limits of personal, cultural, economic, or political rights (e.g., freedom of expression vs. school dress codes, speaking one’s native language vs. English-only legislation; living wage vs. minimum wage; civil liberties vs. national security)

 

 

 

 

 

e. describing the criteria used for admission to citizenship in the U.S.

 

e. critically examining the criteria used for admission to citizenship in the U.S.

 

 

 

C&G 3 (K-2) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of how individuals and groups exercise (or are denied) their rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (3-4) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of how individuals and groups exercise (or are denied) their rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (5-6) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding how individuals and groups exercise (or are denied) their rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (7-8) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of how of individuals and groups exercise (or are denied) their rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (9-12) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of how individuals and groups exercise (or are denied) their rights and responsibilities by…

C&G 3 (Ext) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of how individuals and groups exercise (or are denied) their rights and responsibilities by…

a. demonstrating personal and group rights and responsibility (e.g., self-managing behavior, time, space, and materials)

 

a. demonstrating and explaining how personal choices can affect rights, responsibilities and privileges of self and others (e.g., bullying, breaking rules, intruding on others’ space, interference with others’ rights to learn)

a. identifying and explaining specific ways rights may or may not be exercised (e.g., civil rights)

a. identifying an issue, proposing solutions, and developing an action plan to resolve the issue

a. identifying a policy at the school, local, state, national, or international level and describing how it affects individual rights

a. evaluating, taking, and defending a position regarding a policy at the school, local, state, national, or international level that affects individual rights

b. working cooperatively in a group, sharing responsibilities or individual roles within a group

 

b. working cooperatively in a group, demonstrating individual/personal accountability (e.g., dividing responsibilities, taking on individual roles) to complete a task (e.g., in-class group projects, civic or community activities, school-wide groups or clubs working toward a common goal)

b. recognizing potential conflicts within or among groups, brainstorming possible solutions, and reaching compromises (e.g., discrimination, bullying)

 

b. identifying and explaining how an action taken by an individual or a group impacts the rights of others

b. accessing the political system (e.g., letter writing, researching an issue and communicating it to the public, organizing, petitioning, boycotting/buycotting)

 

c. identifying feelings and situations that lead to conflict and describing ways people solve problems effectively

c. explaining different ways conflicts can be resolved, how conflicts and resolutions can affect people, and describing the resolution of conflicts by the courts or other authorities

c. explaining the judicial process - due process – local, state, and federal (e.g., school discipline policy, truancy court, appeals process)

c. identifying the impact of an historic court case

c. describing and giving examples of how access to institutions can affect justice, reward, and power in the U.S.

c. analyzing how access to institutions affects justice, reward, and power in the U.S.

 

 

 

 

d. identifying and explaining ways individuals and groups have exercised their rights in order to transform society (e.g., Civil Rights Movement, women’s suffrage)

d. critiquing and proposing alternatives to social, political, or economic injustices; using evidence to make predictions about how society might be transformed in the future

 

 

 

 

e. participating in and reflecting on a decision-making experience as part of a group in your classroom, school, or community (e.g., developing classroom norms, School Improvement Team member, response to community needs, such as a food drive) 

e. reflecting on participation in school governance and/or youth leadership development

 

 

 

C&G 4: People engage in political processes in a variety of ways.

GSEs for Grades K-2

GSEs for Grades 3-4

GSEs for Grades 5-6

GSEs for Grades 7-8

GSEs for HS Proficiency

GSEs for HS Extended Learning

C&G 4 (K-2) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of political systems and political processes by…

C&G 4 (3-4) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of political systems and political processes by…

C&G 4 (5-6) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of political systems and political processes by…

C&G 4 (7-8) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of political systems and political processes by…

C&G 4 (9-12) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of political systems and political processes by…

C&G 4 (Ext)–1

Students demonstrate an understanding of political systems and political processes by…

a. identifying forms of civic participation (e.g., voting, conducting a survey)

a. identifying forms and levels (e.g., voting vs. running for office, organizing a meeting vs. attending a meeting) of civic participation and how it affects the common good (local, state, national, world)

a. explaining how leaders are selected or elected (e.g., election process, appointment process, political parties, campaigns)

 

a. explaining how various factors affect how leaders are selected or elected through an election process (e.g., election process, public agenda, special interest groups, and media)

a. comparing and contrasting U.S. systems of government with others

 

 

 

 

b. listing the “labels” that individuals may give themselves within a political process (e.g., radical, liberal, conservative, environmentalist, Democrat, Republican)

 

b. describing how and why individuals identify themselves politically (e.g., Federalist, Anti-federalist, suffragette, pacifist, nationalists, socialists)

b. interacting with, analyzing, and evaluating political institutions and political parties in an authentic context (using local, national, or international issues/events that are personally meaningful)

b. interacting with political institutions and/or political parties in order to evaluate how they shape the public agenda

 

 

 

c. identifying, comparing, and contrasting different “political systems” (e.g., monarchy, democracy, feudal)

c. evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of various political systems (e.g., dictatorship, oligarchy, monarchy, democracy, theocracy)

c. analyzing and interpreting sources (print and non-print discourse/media), by distinguishing fact from opinion, and evaluating possible bias/propaganda or conflicting information within or across sources (GSE R-10-8.4)

 

c. critically analyzing a media piece (e.g., political advertisements, news broadcasts, talk radio shows)  and assessing its impact on public opinion and behavior

 

 

 

 

d. examining how elections are/can be vehicles of change

d. selecting a landmark campaign or election in the American political system, explaining the historical context and its significance, and evaluating its impact

 

d. evaluating the significance of landmark campaigns and elections in the American political system

 

 

 

e. recognizing multiple perspectives on historical or current controversial issues

e. analyzing multiple perspectives on an historical or current controversial issue (e.g., immigration, environmental policy, escalation of the war in Vietnam, Brown v. Board of Education)

e. analyzing multiple perspectives on historical or current controversial issues to illustrate the complexity involved in obtaining political agreement on contested public issues

(e.g., perspectives on immigration)

 

 

 

C&G 4 (K-2) – 2 Students demonstrate their participation in political processes by…

C&G 4 (3-4) – 2 Students demonstrate their participation in political processes by…

C&G 4 (5-6) -2

Students demonstrate their participation in political processes by…

C&G 4 (7-8)-2

Students demonstrate their participation in political processes by…

C&G 4 (9-12) –2

Students demonstrate their participation in political processes by…

C&G 4 (Ext) –2

Students demonstrate their participation in political processes by…

a. experiencing a variety of forms of participation (e.g.,  voting, conducting a survey, writing a class letter about an issue of concern)

a. engaging in a variety of forms of participation (e.g., voting, petition, survey) and explaining the purpose of each form 

a. using a variety of sources to form, substantiate, and communicate an opinion and presenting their opinion to an audience beyond the classroom (e.g., letter to the editor, student exhibition, persuasive essay, article in school newspaper)

a. expressing and defending an informed opinion and presenting their opinion to an audience beyond the classroom (e.g., political cartoon, letter, speech, emailing Congressional membership)

a. using collaborative decision making/problem solving to consider multiple perspectives on a current political, social, or economic issue, evaluating the consequences of various options, and developing a plan of action (e.g., new school policy or local, national, or international public policy)

 

 

 

 

b. describing the voting process for a local, state, or national election

b. describing their role and impact in the voting process

b. working individually or with others to identify, propose, and carry out a community/civic engagement project/initiative (e.g., making the community aware of an issue, organizing a workshop)

 

 

 

 

c. engaging in the political process (e.g., voting in school elections)

c. engaging in the political process (e.g., mock elections)

c. engaging in and reflecting upon an electoral process in a class, school, or community (e.g., become a candidate and carry out a campaign, participate in party/school nominations, work on a political campaign, volunteer to serve on a board, do polling)

 

 


 

C&G 4 (K-2) –3

Students participate in a civil society by…

C&G 4 (3-4) –3

Students participate in a civil society by…

C&G 4 (5-6) –3

Students participate in a civil society by…

C&G 4 (7-8)-3

Students participate in a civil society by…

C&G 4 (9-12) –3

Students participate in a civil society by…

C&G 4 (Ext) –3

Students participate in a civil society by…

a. identifying problems, planning and implementing solutions in the classroom, school, and community (e.g., problem of litter/solutions -each picks up one piece of trash, recycle, plan a clean-up day, etc.)

a. identifying problems, planning and implementing solutions, and evaluating the outcomes in the classroom, school, community, state, nation, or world (e.g., problem of global warming/solutions - recycling, energy conservation)

 

a. demonstrating respect for the opinions of others (e.g., listening to and asking relevant questions, taking turns, considering alternative perspectives)

a. demonstrating an understanding and empathy for the opinions of others (e.g., listening to and asking relevant questions, considering alternative perspectives, voicing alternative points of view, recognizing bias)

a. critically reflecting on their own civic dispositions (e.g., tolerance and respect, concern for the rights and welfare of others, social responsibility, and recognition of the capacity to make a difference)

 

 

b. explaining how individuals can take responsibility for their actions and how their actions impact the community

b. demonstrating the ability to compromise (e.g., offering solutions, persisting to resolve issues)

b. demonstrating the ability to compromise (e.g., offering solutions, persisting to resolve issues)

b. identifying and describing the role that various institutions play in meeting the needs of the community

b. understanding and analyzing the assets and needs of their communities and the interactions with various institutions (e.g., interest and advocacy groups, the not-for-profit sector)

 

 

 

c. taking responsibility for one’s own actions (anticipating and accepting consequences)

c. recognizing the cause(s) and effect(s) of taking a civil action

 

c. identifying and analyzing the conflicts that exist between public and private life (e.g., issues related to Homeland Security, Eminent Domain, civil liberties)

 

 

 

 

d. identifying and accessing reliable sources to answer questions about current important issues (e.g., news media, children’s news magazines)

 

d. utilizing a variety of reliable sources to develop an informed opinion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

C&G 5: As members of an interconnected world community, the choices we make impact others locally, nationally, and globally.

GSEs for Grades K-2

GSEs for Grades 3-4

GSEs Grades 5-6

 GSEs Grades 7-8

GSEs for HS Proficiency

GSEs for HS Extended Learning

C&G 5 (K-2) -1

Students demonstrate an understanding of the many ways earth’s people are interconnected by…

C&G 5 (3-4) –1Students demonstrate an understanding of the many ways Earth’s people are interconnected by…

C&G 5 (5-6)– 1

Students demonstrate an understanding of the many ways Earth’s people are interconnected by…

C&G 5 (7-8) – 1

Students demonstrate an understanding of the many ways Earth’s people are interconnected by…

C&G 5 (9-12) – 1

Students demonstrate an understanding of the many ways Earth’s people are interconnected by…

C&G 5 (Ext) – 1

Students demonstrate an understanding of the many ways Earth’s people are interconnected by…

a. exploring and discussing ways we interact with others around the world (e.g., food, clothing, transportation, tourism, news)

 

a. explaining how current events around the world affect our lives (e.g., trade, war, conflict-resolution, global warming)

a. identifying, describing, and explaining how people are socially, technologically, geographically, economically, or culturally connected to others

a. tracing and explaining social, technological, geographical, economical, and cultural connections for a given society of people  (e.g., trade, transportation, communication)

 

a. identifying the ways the world is organized: politically, socially, culturally, economically, environmentally (e.g., nation-state)

 

 

b. locating where different nations are in the world in relation to the United States (e.g., related to current events, literature, trade books)

b. locating where different nations are in the world in relation to the U.S.

b. identifying, describing, and explaining how people are politically, economically, environmentally, militarily, and (or) diplomatically connected (e.g., World Bank, UN, NATO, European Union)

 

b. organizing information to show relationships between and among various individuals, systems, and structures (e.g., politically, socially, culturally, economically, environmentally)

 

C&G 5 (K-2) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the benefits and challenges of an interconnected world by…

C&G 5 (3-4) –2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the benefits and challenges of an interconnected world by…

C&G 5 (5-6) -2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the benefits and challenges of an interconnected world by…

C&G 5 (7-8)-2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the benefits and challenges of an interconnected world by…

C&G 5 (9-12)-2

Students demonstrate an understanding of the benefits and challenges of an interconnected world by…

C&G 5-2 (Ext)

Students demonstrate an understanding of the benefits and challenges of an interconnected world by…

a. using a variety of print and non-print sources to explore other people and places

a. exploring current issues using a variety of print and non-print sources (e.g.,  Where does our food come from and what happens if there is a drought?)

a. identifying and discussing factors that lead to the breakdown of order among societies (e.g., natural disasters, wars, plagues, population shifts, natural resources)

 

a. identifying and discussing factors that lead to the breakdown of order among societies and the resulting consequences (e.g., abolition of slavery, terrorism, Fall of Roman Empire, civil war)

 

a. describing the interconnected nature of a contemporary or historical issue

 

 

 

b. citing a social, technological, geographical, economical, or cultural issue that provides an example of both benefits and challenges

b. considering competing interests on issues that benefit some people and cause other people to suffer (e.g., slavery, whaling, oil exploration)

b. analyzing and evaluating a contemporary or historical issue (e.g., free trade versus fair trade, access to medical care and terrorism)               

 


 

C&G 5 (K-2)-3

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the choices we make impact, and are impacted by an interconnected world, by…

C&G 5 (3-4) -3

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the choices we make impact, and are impacted by an interconnected world, by…

C&G 5 (5-6) -3

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the choices we make impact and are impacted by an interconnected world by…

C&G 5 (7-8) -3

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the choices we make impact and are impacted by an interconnected world by…

C&G 5 (9-12) -3

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the choices we make impact and are impacted by, an interconnected world by…

C&G 5 (Ext)-3

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the choices we make impact and are impacted by, an interconnected world by…

a. listing the pros and cons of personal decisions (e.g.,  littering, recycling)

a. listing and explaining the pros and cons of personal and organizational (e.g., businesses, governments, other groups) decisions (e.g., donations to global charities)

 

a. identifying and analyzing  the effects of consumer choice (environmental, communication, political)

a. making predictions as to the effects of personal consumer, environmental, communication, and eventual political choices (e.g., hybrid cars, local v. imported)

a. predicting outcomes and possible consequences of a conflict, event, or course of action

 

 

 

b. explaining how actions taken or not taken impact societies (e.g., natural disasters, incidences of social injustice or genocide)

b. summarizing a significant situation; proposing and defending actions to be taken or not taken (e.g., pollution, consumption, conservation)

 

b. identifying and summarizing the intended and unintended  consequences of a conflict, event, or course of action

 

 

 

 

 

c. using deliberation, negotiation, and compromise to plan and develop just solutions to problems (e.g., immigration, limited energy resources, nuclear threat) created when nations or groups act

 

 

 


Draft GSEs for Historical Perspectives/Rhode Island History Strand

 

 

HP 1: History is an account of human activities that is interpretive in nature.

GSEs for Grades K-2

GSEs for Grades 3-4

GSEs for Grades 5-6

GSEs for Grades 7-8

GSEs for HS Proficiency

GSEs for HS Extended Learning

HP 1 (K-2) –1

Students act as historians, using a variety of tools (e.g., artifacts and primary and secondary sources) by…

HP 1 (3-4) –1

Students act as historians, using a variety of tools (e.g., artifacts and primary and secondary sources) by…

HP 1 (5-6) –1

Students act as historians, using a variety of tools (e.g., artifacts and primary and secondary sources) by…

HP 1 (7-8) –1

Students act as historians, using a variety of tools (e.g., artifacts and primary and secondary sources) by…

HP 1 (9-12) –1

Students act as historians, using a variety of tools (e.g., artifacts and primary and secondary sources) by…

HP 1 (Ext) –1

Students act as historians, using a variety of tools (e.g., artifacts and primary and secondary sources) by…

a. identifying and categorizing the kinds of information obtained from a variety of artifacts and documents (e.g., What would this artifact tell us about how people lived?)

a. describing the difference between primary and secondary sources and interpreting information from each (e.g., asking and answering questions, making predictions)

a. identifying appropriate sources (e.g., historical maps, diaries, photographs) to answer historical questions

a. identifying appropriate sources and using evidence to substantiate specific accounts of human activity

a. formulating historical questions, obtaining, analyzing, evaluating historical primary and secondary print and non-print sources (e.g., RI Constitution, art, oral history, writings of Elizabeth Buffum Chace)

 

 

b. distinguishing objects, artifacts, and symbols from long ago and today (e.g., passage of time documented through family photos, evolution of household appliances)

 

b. classifying objects, artifacts, and symbols from long ago and today and describing how they add to our understanding of the past

b. using sources to support the stories of history (How do we know what we know?)

 

b. drawing inferences from Rhode Island History about the larger context of history (e.g., Opening of Japan, Separation of Church and State, Industrialism)

b. explaining how historical facts and historical interpretations may be different, but are related (e.g., slavery in RI v. economic benefit to RI)

 

 

c. organizing information obtained to answer historical questions

c. asking and answering historical questions, organizing information, and evaluating information in terms of relevance

c. asking and answering historical questions, evaluating sources of information, organizing the information, and evaluating information in terms of relevance and comprehensiveness

 

c. identifying, describing, or analyzing multiple perspectives on an historical trend or event (e.g., mill worker v. mill owners during Industrial Revolution in RI; separation of powers in RI government)

 

 

 

 

d. identifying the point of view of a historical source (e.g., media sources)

 

d. using technological tools in historical research

d. using a variety of technological tools in historical research and interpretation (e.g., master database of graveyards; census records, online school reports, online state tax records)

 


 

HP 1 (K-2) –2

Students interpret history as a series of connected events with multiple cause-effect relationships, by…

HP 1 (3-4) –2

Students interpret history as a series of connected events with multiple cause-effect relationships, by…

HP 1 (5-6) –2

Students interpret history as a series of connected events with multiple cause-effect relationships, by…

HP 1 (7-8) –2

Students interpret history as a series of connected events with multiple cause-effect relationships, by…

HP 1 (9-12) –2

Students interpret history as a series of connected events with multiple cause-effect relationships, by…

HP 1 (Ext) –2

Students interpret history as a series of connected events with multiple cause-effect relationships, by…

a. describing and organizing a sequence of various events in personal, classroom, or school life (e.g., organizing and interpreting data in timelines)

 

a. describing and organizing a sequence of significant events in Rhode Island history (e.g., interpreting and analyzing data in timelines)

a. investigating and summarizing historical data in order to draw connections between two events and to answer related historical questions

a. investigating and analyzing historical and visual data in order to draw connections between a series of events

a. explaining cause and effect relationships in order to sequence and summarize events, make connections between a series of events, or compare/contrast events

 

a. analyzing cause and effect relationships showing multiple causation (e.g., industrialization and immigration, King Philip’s War; detribalization and retribalization)

b. explaining how a sequence of events affected people in home, classroom, or school (e.g., getting a new student in the classroom)

 

b. explaining and inferring how a sequence of events affected people of Rhode Island (e.g., settlement or changes in community/ Rhode Island, Hurricane Katrina)

 

b. developing, expanding, and supporting an historical thesis, based on a series of events

b. interpreting and constructing visual data (e.g., timelines, charts, graphs, flowchart, historical films, political cartoons) in order to explain historical continuity and change (e.g., timeline of Rhode Island’s path to Revolution: Why is Rhode Island first to declare independence, but last colony to ratify the Constitution?)

 

b. analyzing visual data in order to explain historical continuity and change (e.g. timeline of Rhode Island’s path to Revolution) (How did architectural changes in RI mirror historical trends? – Mills transformed into living and work spaces)

 


 

HP 2: History is a chronicle of human activities, diverse people, and the societies they form.

GSEs for Grades K-2

GSEs for Grades 3-4

GSEs for Grades 5-6

GSEs for Grades 7-8

GSEs for HS Proficiency

GSEs for HS Extended Learning

HP 2 (K-2) – 1

Students connect the past with the present by…

HP 2 (3-4) –1

Students connect the past with the present by…

HP 2 (5-6) – 1

Students connect the past with the present by…

HP 2 (7-8) –1

Students connect the past with the present by…

HP 2 (9-12)– 1

Students connect the past with the present by…

HP 2 (Ext)–1

Students connect the past with the present by…

a. recognizing the origin, name, or significance of local geographic and human-made features (e.g., school, street, park, city, river, monuments)

a. investigating and explaining the origin, name, or significance of local and Rhode Island geographic and human-made features

a. identifying sequential events, people, and societies that have shaped RI today

a. determining the cause(s) and effect(s) of specific historical events that impact RI today

a. explaining origins of major historical events (e.g., Industrial Revolution in Rhode Island)

a. tracing and analyzing how a present situation or problem has been constructed/affected by its historical roots

(e.g., deindustrialization in Rhode Island)

 

 

 

b. comparing and contrasting the development of RI ethnic history to the nation’s history (e.g., What historical factors makes RI unique?; immigration, settlement patterns, religion, resources, geography)

 

b. analyzing the impact of RI’s ethnic development on local, state, and national history

b. identifying and linking key ideas and concepts and their enduring implications (e.g., separation of church and state in Rhode Island)

 

 

 

c. identifying and describing how national and world events have impacted RI and how RI has impacted world events (e.g., China Trade, WWII, Industrial Revolution)

c. analyzing and evaluating how national and world events have impacted RI and how RI has impacted world events

c. analyzing and evaluating how national and world events have impacted Rhode Island and how Rhode Island has impacted national and world events (e.g., women’s liberation movement; Commodore Matthew Perry of RI opens trade with Japan; Quonset Hut; slave trade)

 

c. researching a current state, national or world issue and predicting future implications for RI or propose a course of action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HP 2 (K-2) – 2

Students chronicle events and conditions by…

HP 2 (3-4) – 2

Students chronicle events and conditions by…

HP 2 (5-6) – 2

Students chronicle events and conditions by…

HP 2 (7-8) – 2

Students chronicle events and conditions by…

HP 2 (9-12) – 2 

Students chronicle events and conditions by…

HP 2 (Ext) – 2 

Students chronicle events and conditions by…

a. describing, defining, and illustrating a sequence of events from personal, classroom, school, or community life (e.g., timeline or self-made informational text showing key events)

a. describing, defining, and illustrating by example Rhode Island historical individuals, groups and events (e.g., Roger Williams, Native Americans, immigrant groups) and how they relate to the context (e.g., conditions of the time, events before and after)

a. placing key events and people of a particular historical era in chronological sequence

a. identifying key events and people of a particular historical era or time period (e.g., centuries, BCE, “The Sixties”)

a. creating narratives based on a particular historical point of view (e.g., unemployed WWII vet, home front in WWII, oil refinery promoter, environmental activist in Rhode Island; slave or free black in Newport, slave holder, trader or investor)

a. critiquing historical narratives for historical accuracy or points of view

 

 

b. summarizing key events and explaining the historical contexts of those events

b. correlating key events to develop an understanding of the historical perspective of the time period in which they occurred (e.g., Jacksonian Democracy and Dorr’s Rebellion, water power and steam power, WWII and women at work)

 

b. synthesizing information from multiple sources to formulate an historical interpretation (e.g., document-based questions, quantitative data, material artifacts of RI)

 

HP 2 (K-2) – 3

Students show understanding of change over time by…

HP 2 (3-4) – 3

Students show understanding of change over time by…

HP 2 (5-6) – 3

Students show understanding of change over time by…

HP 2 (7-8) – 3

Students show understanding of change over time by…

HP 2 (9-12)– 3

Students show understanding of change over time by…

HP 2 (Ext)– 3

Students show understanding of change over time by…

a. exploring and describing similarities and differences in objects, artifacts, and technologies from the past and present (e.g., transportation, communication, school and home life)

a. interpreting and explaining similarities and differences in objects, artifacts, technologies, ideas, or beliefs (e.g., religious, economic, education, self-government) from the past and present (e.g., transportation or communication in the community, RI, U.S.)

a. establishing a chronological order by working backward from some issue, problem, or event to explain its origins and its development over time

 

a. establishing a chronological order by working backward from some issue, problem, or event to explain its origins and its development over time; and to construct an historical narrative

a. tracing patterns chronologically in history to describe changes on domestic, social, or economic life (e.g., immigration trends, land use patterns, naval military history)

a. tracing patterns chronologically in history to describe changes on domestic, social, or economic life and predicting events that might occur in the future, based on those patterns

 

 

 

 

b. documenting various groups (e.g., formal: non-government organizations, religious; informal: family, clan) and their traditions that have remained constant over time (e.g., religious denomination, fishing industry, formal and informal design, town financial meeting, lotteries)

b. documenting various groups and their ideas that have remained constant over time and analyzing why they have or have not endured

 


 

HP 3: The study of history helps us understand the present and shape the future.

GSEs for Grades K-2

GSEs for Grades 3-4

GSEs for Grades 5-6

GSEs for Grades 7-8

GSEs for HS Proficiency

GSEs for HS Extended Learning

HP 3 (K-2) – 1

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present by…

HP 3 (3-4) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present by…

HP 3 (5-6) – 1

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present by…

HP 3 (7-8) –1

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present by…

HP 3 (9-12) – 1

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present by…

HP 3 (Ext) – 1

Students demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present by…

a. identifying how events and people shape family and school life (e.g., How would your life change if you moved to another place?  What would happen if your school closed?  What would happen if there were no school buses?)

a. recognizing and interpreting how events, people, problems, and ideas shape life in the community and in Rhode Island

a. identifying historical conditions and events that relate to contemporary issues (e.g., separation of church state, treatment of Native Americans, immigration, gender issues)

a. analyzing and reporting on a social movement from its inception (including historical causes), its impacts on us today, and its implications for the future

 

a. gathering evidence of circumstances and factors contributing to contemporary problems (e.g., civil rights movement, sexual revolution)

a. tracking implementation of a decision; analyzing the interests it served; estimating the position, power, and priority of each stakeholder; and predicting continuing costs and benefits from a variety of perspectives (e.g., public school funding in RI or U.S.)

 

 

 

b. answering “what if” questions and using evidence to explain how history might have been different (e.g., How might history be different if Anne Hutchinson hadn’t dissented?)

b. evaluating alternative courses of action, (keeping in mind the context of the time), ethical considerations, and the interest of those affected by the decision, and determining the long- and short-term consequences (e.g., Post WWII use of Narragansett Bay - tourism vs. oil refinery)

b. formulating a position or course of action on a current issue from a choice of carefully evaluated options, taking into account the historical underpinnings (e.g., casino issue and American Indian sovereignty; current national border debate and RI historical perspective)

 

b. formulating and presenting a position or course of action on a current issue in a public forum

 

 


 

HP 3 (K-2) – 2

Students make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world) by…

HP 3 (3-4) – 2

Students make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world) by…

HP 3 (5-6) – 2

Students make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world) by…

HP 3 (7-8) – 2

Students make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world) by…

HP 3 (9-12) – 2

Students make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world) by…

HP 3 (Ext)– 2

Students make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world) by…

a. using a variety of sources (e.g., photographs, written text, clothing, oral history) to reconstruct their past and understand the present.

 

a. using a variety of sources (e.g., photographs, written text, clothing, oral history) to reconstruct the past, understand the  present, and make predictions for the future 

a. explaining how the similarities of human issues across time periods influence their own personal histories (e.g., so what? How does this relate to me?)

a. recognizing and reflecting on how the similarities of human issues across time periods influence their own personal histories (e.g., so what? How does this relate to me?)

a. articulating an understanding of the meaning, implications, and impact of historical events on their lives today (e.g., closing of the Navy in Rhode Island at Quonset Point; volunteer army; ratification of RI Constitution; whaling industry, access to the shore, declining birth rates)

 

a. using knowledge of historical ideas and concepts and their enduring implications, to formulate a philosophy statement based on personal values

 

 

b. explaining how the differences of human issues across time periods

influence their own personal histories (e.g., so what? How does this relate to me?)

 

b. recognizing and reflecting on how the differences of human issues across time periods influence their own personal histories (e.g., so what? How does this relate to me?)

b. analyzing how an historical development (e.g., cycle of poverty or prosperity, low educational attainment, “Independent Man”) has contributed to current social, economic, or political patterns

 

b. presenting an analysis of an historical development to a public forum

 

 

c. identifying the cultural influences that shape individuals and historical events

c. comparing and contrasting the cultural influences that shape individuals and historical events (e.g., Conversion of Quakers from slave holders to abolitionists, emergence of mill villages, Gordon Trial)

 

 

 

 

 


APPENDIX A - DRAFT Glossary of Terms

 

 

Amendment – (constitutional) changes in, or additions to, a constitution; proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress or by a convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures; ratified by approval of three-fourths of the states

 

Anarchy – political and social disorder due to the absence of government control: The death of the king was followed by a year of anarchy.

 

Artifact – an object made or used by man that is of archeological or historical interest (e.g., tools, weapons, ceramics, pieces of furniture, etc.)

 

Authority – the right to control or direct the actions of others, legitimized by law, morality, custom, or consent: According to the Constitution of the United States, the executive branch, namely the President, has the authority to veto laws approved by Congress.

 

Autocracy – a form of government in which one person possesses unlimited power: A monarchy is a type of autocracy.

 

Bill – a form or draft of a proposed law presented to a legislature: A bill must pass in both chambers of Congress before it can become law.

 

Bill of Rights – the First Ten Amendments to the Constitution of the United States; ratified in 1971, these amendments limit government power and protect basic rights and liberties of individuals

 

Branches of Government – the three branches of the federal government are the Executive (President), Legislative (Congress: Senate and House of Representatives), and Judicial (Supreme Court)

 

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) – a Supreme Court case which declared that “separate-but-equal” educational facilities are inherently unequal and therefore a violation of equal protection of the law guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment

 

Boycotting voluntarily abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or product as an expression of protest – usually motivated by sociopolitical reasons

 

Buycotting – voluntarily choosing to use, buy, or deal with a specific person, organization, or product as an expression of support – usually for sociopolitical reasons; the opposite of boycott

 

Checks and Balances – the system whereby each branch of an organization can limit the powers of other branches.  This system is enacted through the Constitution of the U.S. in order to prevent any of its three branches (executive, legislative, and judicial) from dominating the Federal government: e.g. Congress (legislative) has the power to declare war, the President (Executive) has the power to veto bills passed by Congress, and the Supreme Court (Judicial) has the power to interpret laws. e.g., the Senate must confirm major executive appointments, and the courts may declare acts of Congress unconstitutional

 

Chronicle – (n) an account, description, record, history, narration, story, journal, or diary of events; (v) to record, recount, narrate, or write down to keep track of events

 

Chronology – the study of history is grounded in chronology; the main way historians arrange events and trends in history to see patterns of continuity and change in history; understanding the order of events is crucial to understanding, analyzing, or explaining the importance or meaning of events

 

Citizen – a native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection, privileges, or franchises (distinguished from Alien): Citizens of the United States have United States passports to prove their U.S. citizenship when visiting another country.

 

Citizenship – the status of being a member of a state or country, one who promises allegiance to the nation and is entitled to its protection and to political rights

 

Civic – of or pertaining to citizenship; civil: civic duties.

 

Civics – the study of citizenship and government

 

Civil – of or pertaining to, or consisting of citizens; civil life; civil society or of citizens in their ordinary capacity, or of the ordinary life and affairs of citizens as distinguished from military or religious life and affairs

Civil liberties – areas of personal freedom with which governments are constrained from interfering

Civil rights – protections and privileges of personal liberty given to all citizens by law, rights bestowed by nations on those within the territorial boundaries: e.g. Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.

 

Common good (public good) – the good of the community

 

Constitutional government (constitutionalism) – the idea that the powers of government should be distributed according to a written or unwritten constitution and that those powers should be effectively restrained by the constitution’s provisions

 

Debate – a discussion, as of a public question in an assembly, involving opposing viewpoints: a debate in the Senate on farm price supports.

 

Democratic ideals – is a rhetorical phrase used to denote either personal qualities or standards of government behavior that are felt to be essential for the continuation of a democratic policy. e.g., individual dignity, equality, liberty, freedom, legitimate authority, privacy, responsibility, justice, etc.: e.g. advocates for greater equality in the distribution of wealth will argue that inequalities create differing levels of opportunity and that equality is a democratic ideal.

 

Democracy – government by the people; a form of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under the electoral system: The U.S. and Canada are democracies.

 

Dictatorship – A country, government, or the form of government in which absolute power – usually gained and maintained by force – is exercised by a ruler or small group not restricted by a constitution, laws, opposition, etc. to be held responsible to the will of the people; a form of totalitarianism: Cuba has been called a dictatorship even though it espouses communism.

 

Discourse – communication of thought by words; talk; conversation or a formal discussion of a subject in speech or writing, as a dissertation, treatise, sermon, etc.

 

Discriminate – is to make a distinction between people on the basis of class or category without regard for individual merit; the unfair treatment or denial of normal privileges to persons because of their race, age, sex, nationality or religion

 

Diversity – variety in culture and ethnic background, race and belief is not only permissible but also desirable and beneficial in a pluralistic society

 

Divine right – the doctrine that monarchs derive their right to rule directly from God and are accountable only to God

 

Due process of law – the principle that government must normally respect all of a person’s legal rights when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property, guaranteed under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution

 

Election – is a decision making process where people choose people to hold offices (through voting): The presidential elections in the United States are held every four years.

 

Enduring documents – historical documents which are central to the ideology, structure, and actions of a government, institution, or society: e.g., Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, Magna Carta.

 

Federal (federalism) – system of government in which power is divided between a central authority (national government) and constituent unit (states); in particular, the allocation of significant law making powers with most powers retained by the central authority: e.g., the United States is a federal system

 

Feudal (feudalism) – a political and economic system in which a king or queen shared power with the nobility who required services from the common people in return for allowing them to use the noble’s land: Feudalism was prevalent in the Middle Ages.

 

Freedom – quality or state of independence; demonstration of free will in areas such as: to gather in public (assembly); to print or publish without government interference (press);  to worship as one pleases (religion); to express oneself verbally or non-verbally (speech); etc.

 

Functions of government – to establish justice, to insure domestic tranquility, to provide for the common defense, to promote the general welfare, and to secure the blessings of liberty: Preamble to the U.S. Constitution

 

Government – the people, institutions and/or procedures through which a political unit (territory, people, organization, etc.) is ruled or administered

 

Habeas corpus – court order demanding that the individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention; guaranteed by the Constitution and can be suspended only in cases of rebellion or invasion

 

Historical interpretation – the act of interpreting historical sources that takes place when researching a person, topic, or event in history, by selecting certain facts to emphasize and organizing facts around certain concepts; all history is an interpretation by historians who bring to their research and writing their own frame of reference or set of perceptions and experiences through which they view the world and people

 

Historical thinking skills – skills that enable students to: differentiate among the past, present, and future time; formulate historical questions for inquiry; seek and evaluate evidence; compare  and analyze historical stories, illustrations, and records; interpret historical records; and construct historical narratives of their own  (source: National Standards for History, National Center for History in the Schools)

 

Human rights – concept of human beings as having universal rights, or status, regardless of legal jurisdiction or other localizing factors, such as ethnicity, nationality, or sex:  According to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, human rights are conceptualized as based on inherent human dignity.

 

Ideology – the combined doctrines, assertions, and intentions of a social or political group that justify its behavior

 

Individual rights – held distinct from human rights, but the rights of individuals by virtue of their humanness provide the moral claim to freedom of action often codified into law so they may be protected by impartial third parties

 

Institution – (political or government) organizations such as Congress, the presidency, and the court system that play a significant role in the making, carrying out, and enforcing [of] laws and managing conflicts about them; also a custom, practice (e.g., the institution of slavery), organization (e.g., Congress), relationship, or behavioral pattern of importance in the life of a community or the larger society

 

Interdependence – a situation in which decisions or events in one part of the world or in one sector of the economy affect decisions and events in other parts of the word and other sectors of the economy

 

Judicial Review – the power of the court to study and decide on the constitutionality of the laws of the government or the acts of a government official: The precedent for judicial review was established in the 1803 Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison.

 

Justice – the fair distribution of benefits and burdens, fair correction of wrongs and injuries, or use of fair procedures in gathering information and making decisions

 

Law – a set of rules, issued and enforced by a government, that binds every member of society: If you break the law and disturb the peace, you will pay the consequences.

 

Legitimized (legitimacy) – Acceptance as right and proper; belief among citizens that their government has the right to pass and enforce laws. To make lawful or legal; pronounce or state as lawful: Parliament legitimized his accession to the throne.

 

Libertypermission granted by a government to go freely within specified limits; privileges of various social, political, or economic rights and privileges

 

Majority rule – is the rule that requires more than half the members of a polity (community, government, or corporation) who cast a vote to agree in order for the entire polity to make a decision on a measure being voted on: After sixty-nine percent of the community voted to approve the amendment to the law, it went into effect according to the majority rule. 

 

Magna Carta – a document signed by King John of England in 1215 that guaranteed certain basic rights; considered the beginning of constitutional government in England

 

Marbury v. Madison (1803) – a historic case in which the Supreme Court held that it had the power of judicial review over acts of Congress

 

Minority rights – embodies two separate concepts; first, normal individual rights as applied to members of a racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic, or sexual minorities, and second, collective rights of minority groups.  A legal framework designed to ensure that a specific group, which is vulnerable, disadvantaged or in a marginalized position in society is able to achieve equality and is protected from persecution: e.g. children’s rights, women’s rights and refugee rights.  Civil rights movements often seek to ensure that individual rights are not denied on the basis of membership in a minority group.

 

Monarchy – form of government that has a monarch (king or queen) as Head of State; usually political power is exercised under the claim of divine or hereditary right of that single ruler; a type of autocracy: The United Kingdom is a monarchy.

 

Oligarchy – a form of government where the many are ruled by a few rather than one

 

Parliamentary (system) – a form of government that gives governmental authority to a legislature that selects the executive from its own members: England and France have parliamentary governments.

 

Pluralism – the affirmation and acceptance of diversity; in politics, the affirmation and acceptance of diversity in the interests and beliefs of the citizenry is one of the most important features of a democracy

 

Policy – a course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party, etc.

 

Political ideology – an organized, coherent set of attitudes about government and public policy: By identifying with a political party, you show your agreement with their political ideology.

 

Political party – A group of people with broad common interests who organize, however loosely, to elect government officials under a given label, control government, and influence government policies; An organization that seeks to attain higher political power within a government, usually through participating in a campaign. e.g., in the United States: Democrat, Republican, etc.

 

Political system – the government, ruler(s), and institutions exercising power over a specific territory

 

Politics – the methods by which individuals and groups try to influence operations of government

 

Popular sovereignty – the concept that political and legislative power resides with the citizens, who entrust that power to the government, which is under their control because the people’s vote is considered the final authority

 

Primary source – an original fundamental and authoritative document pertaining to an event or subject of inquiry; a firsthand or eyewitness account of an event: e.g. an autobiography is a primary source.

 

Privileges – any of the rights common to all citizens under a modern constitutional government

 

“Regime of truth” – a power structure or truth-generating apparatus (school, discipline, profession, law) that reinforces a system of ordered procedures for the production, regulation, distribution, circulation and operation of statements

 

Republic (republican government) – state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them to promote the common welfare

 

Rights – the just claims that belong to a person by law, nature, or tradition: The Declaration of Independence states that all people are created equal with “certain unalienable rights … Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

 

Rule – a principle or regulation governing conduct, action, procedure, arrangement, etc. that is enforced by those who established it, but is not necessarily universally applicable or enforceable: e.g., some schools enforce the wearing of school uniforms, but not all schools in that state  are required to follow that rule.

 

Rule of Law – The principle that every member of a society, even a ruler, must follow the law; The principle that government authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure.  The principle is intended to safeguard against arbitrary governance: e.g. separation of powers or principle of legitimate equality of all before the law.

 

“Rule of man” – government officials and others governing by their personal whim or desire rather than by the “rule of law”

 

Secondary source – any document that describes an event, person, place, or thing; usually not created by someone living in the same time period; contains information others have gathered and interpreted; indirect or second-hand information: e.g. a biography is a secondary source.

 

Seminal documents – documents extolling original, relevant ideas that are seen to influence the development of future events or issues: e.g., Declaration of the Rights of Man, Universal Declaration of Rights, International Convention on the Rights of the Child.

 

Separation of powers – the division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making: The separation of powers in the United States government provides a series of checks and balances among the three branches of government.

 

Service learning - a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities (usually incorporated into an educational system as a graduation requirement)

 

Social contract (compact) – an agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in return for protection of their natural rights; a theory developed by Locke to explain the origin of legitimate government

 

Sovereignty – the ultimate, supreme power in a state; in the United States, sovereignty rests with the people; complete independence and self-government

 

Special interest group – an organized body of individuals who share some goals and try to influence public policy to meet those goals

 

States’ rights – the rights belonging to the various states, especially with reference to the strict interpretation of the Constitution, by which all rights not delegated by the Constitution belong to the states

 

Suffrage – right to vote

 

Theocracy – a form of government in which the leaders of the government are also the leaders of the religion and they rule as representatives of the deity (by divine authority): The Holy Roman Empire was a theocracy.

"Unalienable" (inalienable) rights – fundamental rights of the people that may not be taken away; a phrase used in the Declaration of Independence

Vote – (n) A formal expression of opinion or choice made by an individual or body of individuals: According to the tally of the votes, the new student council will consist entirely of new members.; (v) An individual’s act of expressing support or preference for a certain motion, candidate, or selection of candidates by casting a ballot: Each student voted for the candidate he or she thought would be the best for the position.

 

 

The following sources were referenced when developing the glossary:


·          Center for Civic Education (1994-2007) National Standards for Civics & Government: Glossary

·          The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2007)

·          Arizona Department of Education (2005) Social Studies Standard Articulation by Grade Level Project: Glossary

·          Colorado Department of Education (1998) Colorado Model Content Standards for Civics: Glossary

·          Maine Department of Education (2007) Social Studies Standards: Glossary

·          Missouri Department of Education (2007) Social Studies Grade and Course Level Expectations: Glossary

·          Nevada Department of Education (2000) Nevada State Social Studies Standards: Civics Glossary

·          Ohio Department of Education (2002) Academic Content Standards, K-12 Social Studies: Glossary

·          South Carolina Department of Education (2005) Social Studies Standards 2005: Glossary

·          South Dakota Department of Education (2006) South Dakota Social Studies Standards Glossary

·          Tennessee Department of Education (2007) Social Studies Curriculum Standards: Glossary



DRAFT Appendix B:  Suggested Resources**

 

Suggested National/Global Resources**

 

Key for Grade Level: ES = grades K-5; MS = grades 6-8; HS = grades 9-12

** Suggested resources listed are not meant to be exhaustive; these are only a sample of resources that are available free of charge and may be of use to you. 

The Rhode Island Department of Education is not responsible for the veracity of the content.

 

Topic

Name, source

Description

Website

Grade level(s)

Civics, Government

 

Bill of Rights Institute

Online lesson resources: topics, discussion questions, informational links

http://www.billofrightsinstitute.org/instructional/resources/Lessons/Lessons_List.asp

HS

Civics, History, Government

 

Center for Civic Education

Online lesson plans aligned to national standards

http://www.civiced.org/index.php?page=lesson_plans

ES, MS, HS

Civics, History, Government

 

National Endowment for the Humanities

Online lesson plans aligned to national standards

http://edsitement.neh.gov/special_features_view.asp?id=1

HS

Civics, History, U.S. Presidents

 

United States Mint

Online lesson plans aligned to national standards and games

http://www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/presidential/download.cfm

ES, MS, HS

Civil Rights

The National Archives, U.S. Government

Online information and documents and suggested (unaligned) lesson plans

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/civil-rights-act/activities.html#standards

 

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/memphis-v-mlk/activities.html#standards

 

MS, HS

Civil War

The National Archives, U.S. Government

 

Online information and documents and suggested (unaligned) lesson plans

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/civil-war-docs/activities.html#standards

MS, HS

Electoral College Vote

The National Archives, U.S. Government

 

Online information and documents and suggested (unaligned) lesson plans

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/electoral-tally/activities.html#standards

MS, HS

Geography

 

National Geographic

Online materials/games/activities/ quizzes

http://www.mywonderfulworld.org

ES, MS, HS

Geography, maps

 

National Geographic

Printable maps

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/

ES, MS, HS

Government

Ben’s Guide, Government Publications Office

 

Links to student-oriented websites on government/law topics

http://bensguide.gpo.gov/subject.html#government

ES, MS, HS

Primary Sources

American Memory Collection,

Library of Congress

Online materials and unaligned lesson plans

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/lessons/psources/pshome.html

MS, HS

Social studies, U.S./world history

Federal Resources for Educational Excellence (FREE)

 

Online materials on a variety of topics

http://www.free.ed.gov/HandSS.cfm

ES, MS, HS

U.S. History

American Memory Collection, Library of Congress

 

“Learning Page” – Starting point for collections with associated lessons/materials

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/start/index.html

ES, MS, HS

U.S. History

American Memory Collection, Library of Congress

 

Online text and images of documents; suggestions for lessons and projects

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/

ES, MS, HS

U.S. History

Best of History Web Sites

Online lesson plans, teacher guides, activities, games, quizzes, and links to history web sites

 

http://www.besthistorysites.net/

ES, MS, HS

U.S. History

Teach US History

Online primary source documents and some unaligned lesson plans

 

http://www.teachushistory.org

ES, MS, HS

U.S. History

We the People

Online information regarding aligned lesson plans and curriculum units

 

http://www.civiced-ri.org/const.htm

ES, MS, HS

WWII Japanese internment in U.S.

Smithsonian Institute – American History

Online flash presentation detailing the period of Japanese internment from start to finish

 

http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/experience/index.html

HS

 



 


 

Suggested Rhode Island Resources**

 

Key for Grade Level: ES = grades K-5; MS = grades 6-8; HS = grades 9-12

** Suggested resources listed are not meant to be exhaustive; these are only a sample of resources that are available free of charge and may be of use to you. 

The Rhode Island Department of Education is not responsible for the veracity of the content.

 

Topic

Name, source

Description of site

Website

Grade level(s)

Beginnings to present

Blackstone Valley Tourism Council

Contact information for local area historical societies; also offerings of educational programs and partnership with the Museum of Work and Culture

http://www.tourblackstone.com/historic.htm

ES, MS, HS

Beginnings to present

Burrillville Historical and Preservation Society

Online historical information, facilities for field trips

http://www.bhps.org/

ES, MS, HS

Beginnings to present

Heritage Harbor Museum

Forthcoming museum exhibits on RI history, lesson plans, and online materials/activities

http://www.heritageharbor.org/

ES, MS, HS

Beginnings to present

Rhode Island General Assembly

Online text descriptions of time periods in RI history

http://www.rilin.state.ri.us/RhodeIslandHistory/

MS, HS

Beginnings to present, Historical Records

Rhode Island Historical Society

Online information regarding historical resources, events, properties, museums, and the library

http://www.rihs.org

ES, MS, HS

Beginnings to present

RI.gov

Facts and history of Rhode Island

http://www.ri.gov/facts/

MS, HS

Civic Engagement

We the People / Project Citizen / Foundations of Democracy

Online information regarding aligned lesson plans and curriculum units.  This site also demonstrates alignment to the NECAP literacy standards.

http://www.civiced-ri.org/projcit.htm

ES, MS, HS

Colonial and Civil War Eras

Cranston Historical Society

Online historical information, facilities for field trips

http://www.cranstonhistoricalsociety.org/

ES, MS, HS

Colonial era to present

East Greenwich Historic Preservation Society

Online contact information and local historical information on the Old Kent County Jail, Varnum House and the Town Hall

http://www.eghistoricpreservation.org/

ES, MS, HS

Colonial era to present

East Providence Historical Society

Online information and photos and visiting information

http://www.ephist.org

ES, MS, HS

Colonial era to present

Fort Adams

Online information and photos and visiting information

http://www.fortadams.org/

MS, HS

Colonial era to present

Museum of Newport History

Online information on the museum and tours

http://www.newporthistorical.org/museum_newhist.htm

ES, MS, HS

Colonial era to present

Newport Historical Society

Online information regarding field trips, resources, and contact information

http://www.newporthistorical.org

ES, MS, HS

Colonial era to present

Newport Restoration Foundation

Online historical information and photos, information on school field trips, outreach programs, and visiting

http://www.newportrestoration.com/

ES, MS, HS

Colonial era to present

Providence Preservation Society

Online information regarding historical buildings, educational programs, and Children’s Heritage Education Tours for grades 3-10

http://www.ppsri.org/

ES, MS, HS

Colonial era to present

Rhode Island Historical Records Repository Board

 

List of and contact information for historical and preservation societies in RI

http://www.state.ri.us/rihrab/HistSoc.html

MS, HS

17th-18th century

Gilbert Stuart Birthplace and Museum

Online information on visiting, on the history of the property, and on guided tours tailored to specific age groups and grade level expectations

http://www.gilbertstuartmuseum.com/

ES, MS, HS

17th-20th century

South County Museum

Online information and photos on the museum, exhibits, and educational resources offered

http://www.southcountymuseum.org/

ES, MS, HS

18th century

Governor Stephen Hopkins House

Online contact information and history of the historic site

http://www.stephenhopkins.org

ES, MS, HS

18th century

The Maxwell House

Online information and photos of the house and exhibits, and visiting information

http://www.massasoithistorical.org/

ES, MS, HS

18th century

Whitehall Museum House

Online contact information and history of the property; open by appointment

http://www.whitehallmuseumhouse.org/

ES, MS, HS

18th-19th century

Preservation Society of Newport County – Newport Mansions

Online information and photos, educational programs, teacher resource guides (aligned to RI GSEs), and visiting information

http://www.newportmansions.org/

MS, HS

18th-19th century

Sprague Mansion

Online information on the mansion and tours

http://www.cranstonhistoricalsociety.org/mansion.html

MS, HS

18th-20th century

John Brown House

Online information on exhibits and educational resources

http://www.rihs.org/Museums.html

ES, MS, HS

18th-20th century

John Hunt House Museum

Online historical information and photos and visiting information

http://ephist.org/hunt.htm

MS, HS

18th-10th century

Smith’s Castle

Online information and photos on the history of the property and school tours/programs

http://www.smithscastle.org

ES, MS, HS

19th-20th century

Blithewold

Online information and photos and visiting information

http://www.blithewold.org/

MS, HS

19th-20th century

Mapleville School & Coronet Worsted Company

Online historical information and photos

http://www.bhps.org/mapleville_school_coronet_co.php

ES, MS, HS

19th-20th century

The Museum of Work and Culture

Online information regarding museum exhibits

http://www.woonsocket.org/workandculture.htm

ES, MS, HS

Historical Records

Rhode Island State Archives

Directory for finding state and local historical documents

http://www.state.ri.us/rihrab/direct.html

MS, HS

Industrial Revolution, Post-American Revolution,

18th-20th century

Slater Mill

Online information regarding Slater Mill

http://www.slatermill.org

ES, MS, HS

Judiciary

Justice Rules, Judiciary of Rhode Island

Online information regarding program and free materials

http://www.courts.state.ri.us/outreach/default-justice-rules.htm

ES, MS, HS

Judiciary

Rhode Island Court System

Online and print materials for curriculum/lessons, venue for field trips, speakers

http://www.courts.ri.gov

ES, MS, HS

Maritime history

Herreshoff Marine Museum

Online information and photos, library, and visiting information

http://www.herreshoff.org/frames/mmframe.htm

MS, HS

Post-American Revolution

Old Sturbridge Village

Online historical information, curriculum materials, lesson plans, and information regarding visits and educational programs

http://www.osv.org

ES, MS, HS

Revolutionary War Era

Newport Colony House & Wanton-Lyman-Hazard House

Online information regarding standards-based field trips to historic buildings

http://www.newporthistorical.org/junior.htm

ES, MS, HS